Saturday, May 23, 2020
Throughout its existence, Earth has always satisfied the needs of living things. As time advanced, so did technology; which increased the use of fossil fuels, mechanics, and more of the EarthÃ¢â¬â¢s natural resources. Humans have left their mark in several ways such as, pollution, overpopulation, and deforestation. Though human efforts have been made to improve our ways of abuse to the earth, none could entirely secure the damage made. Pollution is, and has always been, a major issue in the world. It has affected the world on such an immense level that it is considered to be one of the main FUTURE challenges (SIKM 1). Pollution is the improper disposal of trash and waste items in an environment along with the admissions of chemicals. Though this seems like a minor situation, the disposal of trash builds up and contaminates the earth throughout time. There are 3 types of pollution; Trash (solid wastes), air/carbon, and water (occasionally noise/sound) (Uddin 1). In the past decade, pollution rates increased; some believe that it has something to do with the population rates as well. Overpopulation and the continuous population growth have contributed greatly to the earthÃ¢â¬â¢s human impact. Heavily overpopulated areas are considerably more corrupt because of their effects in the environment and their carelessness toward their own problems. (Cassils 2). As the numbers go up, so does the need for producing goods, the use of motorized vehicles, and the operation of buildings andShow MoreRelatedThe Effects Of Climate Change On Fossil Fuels1431 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageslargely to the increased levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide produced by the use of fossil fuels.Ã¢â¬ (Google Dictionary). Due to our dependence on fossil fuels as our main source for energy and our carbon dioxide emissions over decades, climate change has rapidly emerged on Earth. Yet, we still have those who deny any scientific evidence of the effect of the dependence on fossil fuels. Climate c hange is a threat one should not ignore but want to reverse with the transition from fossil fuels to clean energyRead MoreFossil Fuels And The Modern World1002 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesthe modern human raceÃ¢â¬â¢s technology uses immense amounts of energy that comes, usually, comes from fossil fuels. Fossil fuels are great in the short term for many reasons, but mostly because they are already in use for a majority of the world and they are easily accessible. Unfortunately, the great energy source that is fossil fuels is indirectly destroying the humansÃ¢â¬â¢ environment, earth. The burning of fossil fuels, the process where energy is harvested from fossil fuels, releases greenhouse gasesRead MoreFossil Fuels And Global Warming1552 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesnow is facing a major disaster if our habits donÃ¢â¬â¢t change. Fossil fuels dominate our energy demand and at our current rate this will remain true for quite some time. The World Energy outlook claims that by 2030 84% of our en ergy demands will be fulfilled by fossil fuels (Shafiee et al, 181). It is believed that we possess the reserves to meet our demands until 2030 (Shafiee et al, 181) but the cost will increase as time goes on. Fossil fuels are a non-renewable resource, meaning that once we run outRead MoreFossil Fuels : An Essential Foundation1416 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthe dawn of the Industrial Revolution, fossil fuels have become an essential foundation in the innovative endeavors of mankind. Not only has it supported human advancement, but it is virtually ubiquitous in its use and its versatility provides for a strong mechanical prospect. Yet, these prehistoric sources of energy have lately been identified to be a major source of an onset against the well-being of the Earth. Because of the adverse effects of fossil fuels, the effort placed into the solutionsRead MoreRenewable Sources Of Energy Effectively Replace Fossil Fuels Essay1614 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAlternative energy Can renewable sources of energy effectively replace fossil fuels? Can renewable sourves of energy effecticely replace fossil fuels? Is the question of the century.the answer to this question could profouldly change the world, it could put us In a new era a one for the better. But due to the largest oil and gas companies exxon mobil, royal dutch shell, bp, Sinopec and bureaucracy the steps are not being taken to insure our future. The government is corrupted, State officialsRead MoreThe Is The Core Principle Behind The Consistency1372 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesin energy today. Throughout history, various intellectuals have revolutionized the world through their creative methods of cultivating energy. In recent years, people have witnessed some of the greatest advancements and have reached unprecedented levels in technology. These technological advancements are only possible using energy sources. An energy source is a system which creates energy in a certain way. The lifestyle of the future is determined by the energy sources practiced today. Each ener gyRead MoreNuclear Technology After the World War II Essay938 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAfter the United States developed the atomic at the end of World War II, interest in nuclear technology increased exponentially. People soon realized that nuclear technology could be used for electricity, as another alternative to fossil fuels. Today, nuclear power has its place in the world, but there is still a lot of controversy over the use of nuclear energy. Things such as the containment of radiation and few nuclear power plant accidents have given nuclear power a bad image. However, nuclearRead MoreGlobal Warming And Its Effect On Our Lives808 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesnaturally, over the past 50 years the average global temperature has increased at the fastest rate in history. Scientist says that unless we curb the emission that cause climate change, average U.S temperatures could be 3 to 9 degrees higher by the end of the century. According to an analysis of climate change data, there has been 9 0-99% chances that human have led to carbon dioxide emissions resulting from burning of fossil fuel that have causes observable changes in atmospheric warming. The earthRead MoreAlternatives to Fossil Fuels Essay947 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesFossil fuels which are hydrocarbons found within the top layer of the crust, are natural resources formed by the decomposition of anaerobic buried dead organisms such as dead plants and animals. They fossilize through the exposure of heat and pressure in the EarthÃ¢â¬â¢s crust. Fossil fuels are non-renewable resources because of the millions of years they take to be formed; prime examples are coal, natural gas and oil. When coal, natural gas and oil are burnt they release gases into the atmosphere suchRead MoreMankind Vs Mother Nature : The Battle Heats Up817 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesnaturally, over the past 50 years the average global temperature has increased at the fastest rate in history. Scientist says that unless we curb the emission that cause climate change, average U.S temperatures could be 3 to 9 degrees higher by the end of the century. According to an analysis of climate change data, there has been 90-99% chances that human have led to carbon dioxide emissions resulting from burning of fossil fuel that have causes observable changes in atmospheric warming. The earth
Monday, May 11, 2020
Such an issue stirs up moral and religious beliefs; beliefs that are contrary to what America should quot;believequot;. However, such a debate has been apparent in the American marketplace of ideas before with the prohibition of alcohol in the 1920s. With the illegality of alcohol the mafia could produce liquor and therefore had considerable control over those who wanted their substance and service. The role that the mafia played in the 1920s has transformed into the corner drug dealers and drug cartel of the 1990s. The justification that legalized alcohol under Amendment 21 in 1933 should also legalize drugs in 1996. With the legalization of drugs a decrease in deaths related to drug deals would occur and also the price wouldÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Those who want to be controlled by a substance should have every right to do so, because this right has equal jurisdiction as any other human right that has emerged from the sea of oppression and persecuted freedoms. Ã Ã the deaths resulting in the acquiring of alcohol have all but disappeared. When all nonÃ ©medical dealings in alcohol were prohibited in the United States in 1919, the results were very similar to todays drug trade. Alcohol oÃâ quality was brewed illicitly; importers were considered criminals and behaved as such; protection rackets, bribes and gang warfare organized crime in the United States. (Boaz, p.118) The enforcement budget rose from $7 million in 1921 to $15 million in 1930Ã ©Ã ©$108 million in 1988 dollars. In 1926, the Senate Judiciary Committee produced a 1,650Ã ©page report evaluating enforcement efforts a nd proposing reforms. In 1927, the Bureau of Prohibition was created to streamline enforcement efforts, and agents were brought under civil service protection to eliminate corruption and improve professionalism. In that same year, President Hoover appointed a blueÃ ©ribbon commission to evaluate enforcement efforts and recommend reforms. Three years later Prohibition was over and alcohol was legalized.(Boaz, pps.49Ã ©50) Immediately, the bootlegger stopped running around the streets supplying illicit contraband. People stopped worrying about drunks mugging them in the streets orShow MoreRelatedShould The United States Legalize Drug Drugs?2192 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesthe United States Legalize or Decriminalize Drugs? I am certain in my belief that most students who have attended any university in the US have in one way or another been around drugs. However, whether or not they partook in them is debatable. They have more than likely made a decision: to do the drug, or not to do the drug. If they are like me, they did not do the drug, but continued to socialize with those that did partake. If they are not like me, they may have taken the drug and continued toRead MoreEssay on Legalize Performance Enhancing Drugs1826 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesLegalize Performance-Enhancing Drugs in Sports The most commonly discussed issue in sports of the 21st century is the use of performance enhancing drugs by professional athletes. Over the past four years, it has been nearly impossible to turn on the television without hearing something about athletes and these drugs. From former National League MVP Third Baseman Ken Caminitis admission of steroid use in an issue of Sports Illustrated (Verducci, 2004) to 2006 Tour de France Champion Floyd LandisRead More Its Time to Legalize Drugs Essay3002 Words Ã |Ã 13 PagesAmerican drug policies have been a success. To the contrary, the current policy of drug prohibition, aside from being ineffective and costly, has created a set of unwanted consequences including: a high prison population of non-violent offenders, corruption within law enforcement, health issues, and an erosion of civil liberties . Albert Einstein said, Ã¢â¬Å"Insanity is doing the same thing over and over and expecting different results.Ã¢â¬ Yet despite the failures of the current policy in deterring drug useRead MoreThe Social Benefits of Legalization of Marijuana1459 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesis important for my research. Ã¢â¬Å"Marijuana is a mixture of leaves, stems and flowering tops of the hemp plant.Ã¢â¬ (Marijuana, 317). Today in most countries soft narcotics and especially narcotics like marijuana are illegal. Marijuana is a misunderstood drug that is thought of as dangerous but it isnÃ¢â¬â¢t. Because of peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s ignorance and gullibility marijuana has become illegal for all the wrong reasons and should be re-examined for legalization. Society today cannot understand that there has been a cultureRead MoreEssay on Medical Marijuana Should Be Legal2448 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagesmedical treatment has been a long drawn out battle between the U.S. Federal Government and the people petitioning for its therapeutic uses. The history on the use of marijuana (also known as cannabis) has been a big deterrent on legalizing this type of drug toda y. The controversy stems from the medical and legal implications that the U.S. Federal Government has towards the use of marijuana. Others controversies are associated to petitions filed to re-classifying marijuana (a controlled substance) forRead MoreEssay on Legalizing Drugs or Joining the Drug Addict Circle?552 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesOver the years, drug abuse has been a rising problem in almost every country in the world. Day by day more people are involved in this endless cycle of drug craving, money shortage, and drug related crimes. Congressmen and politicians of United States, seeing this unstoppable crime wave which is about to spread throughout the country, begin to address various kinds of possible solutions to end this crisis in the most efficient and effective way. As discussed in Alan M. Dershowitzs The Case forRead MoreMarijuana And Other Narcotic Drugs1235 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Marijuana and other narcotic drugs have been a controversial topic on a national and globa l scale throughout the century. Marijuana especially is considered a drug thatÃ¢â¬â¢s harmful and helpful at the same time. People have formed opinions about different drugs based upon their observations and the scientific research that has been shared with the public from different experimental organizations. We have had picketers demonstrate their support by protesting for the marijuana movement, which canRead MoreEssay on Legalizing Drugs1373 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesDrugs- something and often an illegal substance that causes addiction, habituation, or a marked change in consciousness. - Merriam-Webster Dictionary Just close your eyes for a minute and picture what the world would be like if drugs were legal. Would you be for it or against it? Just think, you could get drugs anywhere you wanted. You would not have to worry about getting in trouble with the law. You could get as many as you wanted and have a supply and variety ofRead More The Economic, Medical and Industrial Benefits of Legalizing Marijuana1710 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesthe normal rate of five percent that would put the price up to 1,807,455,825 it would take the price up a total of one hundred million dollars. Not only would the legalization bring in more then nine percent of the GNP. It would take the amount of drug dealing and money laundering due to dealing down. With this decrease in crime the money spent on police could be put to better use. The police could spend more time in trying to solve crimes such as murders or theft. Though in another area thereRead MoreIllegal Drugs Are Bad for Our Society3229 Words Ã |Ã 13 PagesWhy Illegal Drugs are bad for our Society Allyce Beechy ENG/102 November 26, 2009 Kimberlyn Slagle Illegal drugs should not be allowed in America and we must strive together as a people to do whatever it takes to get them abolished (rid of). Illegal drugs have done more to hurt America than almost anything in our history; lowing the morals of the people, causing the destruction of human lives in the millions, destroying family life, corrupting major companies and businesses, leading our
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Outline woman-as vital to life as man himself Islam gives woman rights and privileges, never grated before Quran addresses men and women Jointly Modern woman seeks rights by force Woman has equal share In every aspect of life She is equal In responsibilities She is equal in pursuit in knowledge She is entitled to equal freedom of expression Islam determines her share in inheritance A misconception regarding this share her witness to civil contact Some advantages woman enjoys more than the man Veil-not a hindrance rather a blessing for woman Conclusion The status of woman In Islam constitutes no problem. The attitude of the QurÃ¢â¬â¢an and the early Muslims bear witness to the fact that the woman Is, at least, as vital to life as man himself. Had it not been for the impact of foreign cultures and alien influences, this question would have never arisen among the Muslims. We will write a custom essay sample on Status of women in ISLAM or any similar topic only for you Order Now The status of woman was taken for granted to equal to that of man. It was a matter of course, a matter of fact. and no one. then. considered it as a problem at all. There is a lot of talk about womanÃ¢â¬â¢s rights in Pakistan and other Muslim countries these days. The Western media is projecting a very gruesome and poor plight of woman in Muslim countries with the intension of distorting the true image of Islam. Unfortunately, this propaganda is proving quite effective and the entire west and a small section of females in our society have misinterpreted Islam as being the cause of their troubles instead of the Aryan culture that we have inherited. In order to understand what Islam has established for woman, there is no need to deplore her plight in the pre- Islamic era or in the modern world ot today. Islam has given woman rights and rivileges which she has never enjoyed under other religious or constitutional systems. This can be understood when the matter Is studied as a whole In a comparative manner, rather than partially. The rights and responsibilities of a woman are equal to those of man but they are not necessarily identical with them. Equality and sameness are two quite different things. This difference Is unaerstanaaDle Decause man ana woman are not laentlcal out tney are created equals. With this distinction in mind, there is no problem. It is almost impossible to find even two identical men or women. Islam was revealed at time when people denied the humanity of the woman. Some were skeptical about it; and still others admitted it, yet considered the woman a thing created for the humble service of the man. With the advent of Islam, circumstances improved for the woman. The womanÃ¢â¬â¢s dignity and humanity were acknowledged for the first time. Islam confirmed womanÃ¢â¬â¢s capacity to carry out AllahÃ¢â¬â¢s commands, her responsibilities and observations of the commands that lead to the heaven. Islam considers woman as a worthy human being, with an equal share in humanity to that of the man. Both are two branches of a single tree and two children from the same father, Adam, and mother, Eve. The status of woman in Islam is something unique that has no parallel in any other religion. In the midst of the darkness that engulfed the world, the divine revelation echoed in the wide desert of Arabia with a fresh, noble, and universal message to humanity: Ã¢â¬Å"O mankind! Be dutiful to your Lord, Who created you from a single person (Adam), and from him (Adam) He created his wife [Hawwa (Eve)], and from them both He created many men and womanÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. (An-Nisa:l)Ã¢â¬ . Stressing this noble nd natural conception, then the Holy Quran states: Ã¢â¬Å"He (God) it is Who did create you from a single soul and there from did create his mate, that he might dwell with her (in love)Ã¢â¬ . (Quran 7:189) In the early days of Islam when a girl was born, she was buried alive. This custom is still observed in Hinduism. However, the Holy Quran forbade this custom and considered it a crime like any other murder. The Holy Quran says: Ã¢â¬Å"And when the female (infant) buried alive- is questioned, for what crime was she killed? Ã¢â¬ (Quran 81:8-9) Far from saving the girlÃ¢â¬â¢s life so that she may later suffer njustice and inequality, Islam requires kind and Just treatment to her. The saying of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), in this regard, is following: Ã¢â¬Å"Whosoever has a daughter and he does not bury her alive, does not insult her, and does not favour his son over her, God will enter him into ParadiseÃ¢â¬ . The Holy Quran provides us a clear- cut proof that woman is equal in all respects with man before Almighty God in terms of her rights and responsibilities. The Holy Quran states: Ã¢â¬Å"Every soul will be (held) in pledge for its deedsÃ¢â¬ (Quran 74:38) In terms of religious obligations, such as ffering daily prayers, fasting and pilgrimage, woman is no different from man. In some cases indeed, woman has certain advantages over man. For example woman can and did go into the mosque during the days of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) and thereafter attending the Friday prayers is optional for them while it is mandatory for men. This is clearly a tender touch of the Islamic teachings because of the fact that a woman may be nursing her baby and thus may be unable to offer prayers in mosque. They also take into account the physiological and psychological changes associated with her natural female functions. The right of females to seek knowledge is not different from that of males. When Islam enjoins the seeking of knowledge upon Muslims, it makes no distinction between man and woman. The Holy Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), said: Ã¢â¬Å"Seeking knowledge is mandatory for every MuslimÃ¢â¬ . This declaration was very clear and was implemented by Muslims throughout history. According to a hadith attributed to Holy Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), he praised the woman of Madina because of their desire religious knowledge, Ã¢â¬Å"How splendid were tne women 0T tne Ansar; sname a a not prevent tnem Trom Decomlng learned In tne aith. Ã¢â¬ Under Islamic law, marriage was no longer viewed as a Ã¢â¬Å"statusÃ¢â¬ but rather as a Ã¢â¬Å"contractÃ¢â¬ , in which the womanÃ¢â¬â¢s consent was imperative. The dowry, previously regarded as a bride-price paid to the father, became a nuptial gift retained by the wife as a part of her personal property. The Holy Quran clearly indicates that marriage is sharing between the two halves of the society and its objectives are emotional well-being and spiritual harmony. Its bases are love and mercy. The rules for married life in Islam are clear and in harmony with upright human nature. In onsideration of the physiological and psychological make-up of man and woman, both have equal rights and claim on each other, except for one responsibility, that of leadership. This is a matter which is natural in any collective life and which is consistent with the nature of man. How to cite Status of women in ISLAM, Papers Status of Women in Islam Free Essays Status of Women in Islam In the history of the world, Islam was the first religion and the first social system which recognized the human status of women and awarded them the highest dignity and honor. In addition, Islam granted women equal rights with men in every aspect, and abolished all discriminations on the basis of sex. According to the ancient Persians, woman was a symbol of filth and evil, and all wicked deities were represented as females. We will write a custom essay sample on Status of Women in Islam or any similar topic only for you Order Now During this period, in which women were deprived of all rights, IslamÃ¢â¬â¢s attempts to liberate them from this shameful position were expressed in Prophet MuhammedÃ¢â¬â¢s own words. These words are, Ã¢â¬ËWoman is the equal of man and the other half of the society, He who respects his wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s rights is a good MuslimÃ¢â¬â¢. In Islam, both women and men have the same status. In the words of the Quran God says Ã¢â¬Å"You are members, one of another. Ã¢â¬ There is no difference between men and women in regards status, rights and blessings both in this world and in the hereafter. Both are equal participants as the carrying out of the functions of daily living. God clearly defined and guaranteed the rights of women in the Quran so that they could no more be exposed to those wrongs, injustices and oppressions which had been inflicted on them since the beginning of the human species. In a nutshell, with the advent of Islam, circumstances improved for the woman. The womanÃ¢â¬â¢s dignity and humanity were acknowledged for the first time. Islam confirmed womanÃ¢â¬â¢s capacity to carry out AllahÃ¢â¬â¢s commands, her responsibilities and observation of the commands that lead to heaven. How to cite Status of Women in Islam, Papers
Thursday, April 30, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Studies on International Fiscal Law. Answer: Introduction: Residency test means the test based on the residential status of an individual. It is important to calculate the residential status of an individual. According to Australian Law if a person resides in Australia, he/she is considered as an Australian resident for taxation purpose. In this case, he does not require passing the residency test of the country. There are three judicial tests to calculate the residential status of an individual in Australia which are as below: The domicile test: The term domicile means a person has a permanent home in one country, i.e. in his home country. A person can be treated as an Australian resident if he is residing in the country by constructing or owning his home in Australia unless he satisfies that his permanent home is outside Australia. Test based on 183 days: According to Australian Law, if a person resides in the country for more than a period of 180 days during their financial year, either continuously or by taking breaks in the tenure, than the person in this case can be treated as the constructive residence of the country unless he satisfies that his permanent residence is outside the country, moreover, he dont have any intention to stay in the country permanently. Test based on Superannuation method: It is helpful for those people who work for the government of the country in Australia, i.e., the person who is involved in either civil services or any government services. The person can be treated as Australian residents if he is working overseas for his post. The person has to declare all the details of his income whether earned in the country or overseas. In the given case, Midoona does not satisfy any of the above-mentioned condition. To pass the domicile test she has a permanent place outside Australia but she does not own any place of residence in Australia. She leases an apartment in Alatai and pays the rent on weekly basis, so that she can save money when she was touring to England for her recording sessions. So, no intention of her can be seen regarding permanent residency. Hence, she is non-resident for the financial year 2015/16. Based on the criteria of 183 days: She arrives in the country on 2 July 2015, and left the country on 15 September 2015 [30+31+15=76 days]. She returned to Australia again on 1 April 2016 and stays in the country for some time. Therefore, the calculated days during this period are [30+31+30=91]. Total calculated days=76+91=167 days. She does not satisfy the second test also. Hence, non-resident for the financial year 2015/16. The Superannuation test of residency is not applicable on her because she is not involved in the governmental services of the country. She works as a karaoke singer in the hotel. To conclude Midoona fails to satisfy all the three conditions of the residency test, hence, the income, which she earns in the country, is not taxable in Australia. Calculation of Midoonas tax liability in the 2015/2016 income year: According to Australian Law total income of an individual can be calculated based on three sources of his income, which includes income from business, income from salary and wages and income from capital gains. It is the main source of income for the federal government because it accounts for more than 67%of the income tax of the country whereas the other tier of government collects 55% from the total source of the revenue. The slab rate of tax for an individual is about 45% whereas for the corporate sector it is @ 30%. The Australian Taxation Office collects the tax. The financial year starts from 1st July and ends on 30th June every year. The tax is calculated on the income of an individual by subtracting the allowable deductions under specified sections of the act. After making necessary changes to the gross income of an individual his net income or the assessable income can be ascertained. The slab rate of tax for a resident in the country is as follows: Taxable income Till $18,200 From $18,201-$37,000 From $37,001-$80,000 From $80,001-$180,000 From more than $180,001 Tax on income Nil 19c for each dollar earned above $18,200 $3,572+32.5c for each dollar above $37,000 $17,547+37c for each dollar above $80,000 $54,547+45c for each dollar above $180,000 Tax rate 0% 0%-9.7% 9.7%-21.9% 21.9%-30.3% 30.3%-44.9 %( less than 45%) On the other hand the slab rate of tax for the income earned by a non-resident individual in the country are as follows: Taxable income Up to $80,000 From $80,001-$180,000 Above $180,001 Tax on income @of 32.5c for each dollar $26,000+37c for each dollar above $80,000 $63,000+45c for each dollar above $180,000 In the given problem, Midoona visited the country on 2nd July 2015 to commence her tour known as like a popstar in the country with her 3 children. The tour was very successful and she earns $450,000 from this tour. Her operating expenses for this tour are $ 380,000. She earns $15,000 as appearance fees for the show The Affairs of Today. On 15 August 2015, she completed her final tour in Adelaide and went for a trip to Australian outback. At Darwin, she enters into a trivia competition at Imperial Hotel. She earns $500 as cash and $500 as weekend package to Alatai. She left the country and returned to England on 15 September from Darwin. She visited Darwin again on 1 April 2016. There she won cash prize of $200 by participating in a competition at Grand Hotel. She earns $45,000 as karaoke host in Darwin. She receives $2,500 as tips from her customers. She deposits this amount to her children account as their pocket money. She spends $1,000 for two dresses, which is essential for her job. She spends $450(150*3) to purchase stilettos for her job. She spends $200 for subscription in the magazine Karaoke Queen so that she can improve her Karaoke skills. She also spends $500 for subscription to the Karaoke Australia Organization. Calculation of taxable income of Midoona for the year 2015/16 Particulars Income from tour in Australia in the year 2015 Operating expenses Appearance fees Amount received in cash from trivia competition Amount received in kind from trivia competition Amount received in cash from Grand Hotel Amount received by giving service as karaoke host Amount received as tips from customer Amount spend on costumes Amount spends on shoes used for working purpose Amount spends on the subscription of the magazine Amount spends on the subscription of Karaoke organization Amount $450,000 $380,000 $15,000 $500 $500 $200 $45,000 $2,500 $1,000 $450 $200 $500 Reason Foreign resident To be deducted from total income To be included in total income Exempt under sec. ITAA97 Exempt under sec.ITAA97 Exempt under sec.ITAA97 Taxable Taxable Deducted from income Deducted from income Deducted from income Deducted from income Taxable 450000 380000 15000 Nil Nil Nil 45000 2500 1000 450 200 500 Taxable income=$70,630 [Note: for calculation see the appendix below] Discussion for the justification for the inclusion/exclusion of each item in the tax payable calculation above: According to Australian Law there are certain implications which a person has to follow for the purpose of taxation which are as below: If a person does not have a permanent home outside Australia, than, the person is to be treated as Australian resident for taxation purpose. If a person, visits Australia for more than a period of six months and he lives at same place for that period than the person is to be treated as Australian resident. But in this case Midoona has a permanent home in UK, moreover, her period of stay was less than 180 days during the year. On the other hand there are certain other criteria based on which a person can be treated as foreign resident for taxation purpose: If a person visits Australia for more than a period of six months and he keeps on travelling during that period than in this case he is treated as a foreign resident for taxation purpose. If a person visits the country for holiday purpose or for a period which is less than a period of six months than he is to be treated as a foreign resident for taxation purpose. In case, if you are a foreign resident than the income which you earned in Australia should not be declared as a foreign income for taxation purpose. In some cases, it depends on the taxation treaty of the other country. It means if the country has some set up with Australian taxation law than the person is liable for tax in both the countries. For example, if a person earns some income in the UK and he is the permanent resident of Australia. If UK has, any set up with Australia than the person can pay the tax either in his own country or in UK. In the given problem, no further information regarding the taxation treaty is seen so it is assumed that there is no taxation treaty among the country. Therefore, whatever she earns in the country will be treated as foreign income and are chargeable to the taxation purpose in UK only. In certain, similar cases like Martin v FCT (1954) 90 CLR 470; Evans v FCT (1989) 20 ATR 922; 89 ATC 4540; Babka v FCT (1989) 20 ATR 1251; Brajkovich v FCT (1989) 20 ATR 1570. The High Court decision in FCT v Stone 2005 ATC 4234;  HCA 21 the court opined that there is a difference in between the income earned as a profession and income earned from hobby. In the given case Midoona earned her income as a profession instead of hobby. Hence chargeable for taxation purpose. References: Ato.gov.au. (2016).Home page | Australian Taxation Office. [online] Available at: https://www.ato.gov.au/ [Accessed 7 Sep. 2016]. Aziz, O., Gemmell, N., Laws, A. (2013). The distribution of income and fiscal incidence by age and gender: some evidence from New Zealand.Victoria University of Wellington Working Paper in Public Finance, (10). Aziz, O., Gemmell, N., Laws, A. (2015). Income and Fiscal Incidence by Age and Gender: Some Evidence from New Zealand.Review of Income and Wealth. Burnett, C., Taylor, C. J., Wong, J. (2015). Qualification of Taxable Entities and Treaty Protection: National Report for Australia.CAHIERS DE DROIT FISCAL INTERNATIONAL: STUDIES ON INTERNATIONAL FISCAL LAW,99. Burton, M. A. (2013). The interpretation of tax legislation in Great Britain and Australia-a study of the indeterminacy of law. Butler, D. (2016). Superannuation: Changing SMSF trustees-tips and traps.Taxation in Australia,50(10), 620. CorreaÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã Velez, I., Barnett, A. G., Gifford, S. (2015). Working for a better life: Longitudinal evidence on the predictors of employment among recently arrived refugee migrant men living in Australia.International Migration,53(2), 321-337. Grubert, H., Altshuler, R. (2016). Shifting the Burden of Taxation from the Corporate to the Personal Level and Getting the Corporate Tax Rate Down to 15 Percent.National Tax Journal,69(3). Hathaway, N. (2013). Imputation Credit Redemption ATO data 1988-2011.Where have all the credits gone. Higgins, C. (2016). Status Determination of Indochinese Boat Arrivals: A Balancing Actin Australia.Journal of Refugee Studies, fev036. Koslowski, R. (2014). Selective migration policy models and changing realities of implementation.International Migration,52(3), 26-39. Lang, M. (2014).Introduction to the law of double taxation conventions. Linde Verlag GmbH. Long, B., Campbell, J., Kelshaw, C. (2016). The justice lens on taxation policy in Australia.St Mark's Review, (235), 94. Phillips, J. (2013).Asylum seekers and refugees: what are the facts?. Canberra: Department of Parliamentary Services, Parliament of Australia. Richardson, G., Taylor, G., Wright, C. (2014). Corporate Profiling of Tax-Malfeasance: A Theoretical and Empirical.Citation: Richardson, G. and Taylor, G. and Wright, C, 359-382. Woodward, A., Taylor, M. (2015). Mergers and acquisitions: How clear is your exit?.Taxation in Australia,49(10), 635.
Saturday, March 21, 2020
How to Earn Computer Certifications Online Whether youÃ¢â¬â¢re looking to broaden the number of companies you can apply to, or simply would like to learn a new skill, there are many options for technology certification and training online. While most credible certification processes require you to take the exam at an authorized testing location, almost all of them do permit you to do all training and preparation work via the internet.When seeking certification, keep in mind that not all types of certification require applicants to complete online training programs. In many cases, certification can be awarded simply by passing an exam. Most certification providers provide training and test prep, but they often charge additional fees to access it. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s generally best to check the providerÃ¢â¬â¢s website for information on the certification first to get a good feel for what preparation is required and what youÃ¢â¬â¢ll need help with. Once you decide that the certification is right for you, note the cost to take the exam, and whether the certification provider offers any online assistance free of charge. Fortunately, there are some excellent resources for preparing for certification online that are available free of charge.Some of the more common certification types include: CompTIA A, Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer (MCSE), Cisco Certification (CCNA CCNP), Microsoft Office Specialist (MOS), and the Certified Novell Engineer (CNE). CompTIA A Certification Employers often ask that those looking for IT type position carry some form of certification. For those looking to work with computer hardware, one of the most common certification sought is Comptia A. The A certification demonstrates that you possess the basic foundation of knowledge necessary to provide IT support and is often considered a good jumping off point for those looking to have a career working with computers. Information on the exam and links to online preparation options are available at Comptia.org. Free test prep can be obtained from ProfessorMesser.com. Microsoft Certified System Engineer The MCSE is a good certification to get if youÃ¢â¬â¢re looking for employment with a business that uses Microsoft networked systems. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s good for those with a year or two of experience with networks and some familiarity with Windows systems. Information on the certification,Ã as wellÃ as testing locations, is provided at the Microsoft website. Free preparation for the exam as well as training material can be found at mcmcse.com. Cisco Certification Cisco certification, particularly the CCNA, is highly valued by employers with large networks. Those looking for a career working with computer networks, network security, and internet service providers will be well served by Cisco certification. Information on certification can be found at Cisco.com. Free study guides and tools can be found at Semsim.com. Microsoft Office Specialist Certification Those looking to work with Microsoft office products such as Excel or PowerPoint will be well served with an MOS certification. While not often specifically requested by employers, an MOS certification is a strong way of demonstrating ones aptitude with a specific Microsoft application. They are also less intense to prepare for than some of the other common certifications. Information from Microsoft on this is available. Free test preparation can be difficult to find, but some practice tests are available for free at Techulator.com. Certified Novell Engineer The CNE is ideal for those looking to, or currently working with Novell software such as Netware. As Novell products seem less used today than they once were, this certification is probably ideal only if you already plan to work with Novell networks. Information on the certification can be found at Novell.com. A directory of free preparation materials can be found at Certification-Crazy.net.Whatever certification you choose to pursue, be sure to review the preparation requirements and costs. Some of the most difficult certification types can take many months to prepare for, so be sure that youÃ¢â¬â¢re able to invest the time and resources necessary to get certified. If your virtual certification efforts go well, you may also be interested in earning an online degree.
Thursday, March 5, 2020
Cheap Out-of-State Colleges Top 25 Most Affordable SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips If youÃ¢â¬â¢re hoping to be far from home for college but are worried about the cost of an out-of-state school, you might run into some issues in the application process. How do you find out-of-state schools that still offer relatively cheap tuition? In this article, IÃ¢â¬â¢ve compiled a list of schools that offer the lowest tuition rates and highest rates of institutional aid to out-of-state students who choose to attend. Keep reading to learn what these schools are! What Are Cheap Out-of-State Colleges? First off,it's important to keep in mind that public collegesare the only schools where the moniker "out-of-state" will have any meaning for you tuition-wise.Public colleges usually offer far higher tuition rates for out-of-state students than they do for in-state students, whereasprivate colleges aren't concerned with students' residential statuses. Therefore, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll only see public colleges on this list (in other words, schools whose tuition price would be affected based on whether or not you live in the state). I decided that the cutoff for "cheap" colleges would be schools with tuition and fees lower than $15,000. Currently,the average public school tuition and fees for out-of-state residents is $26,290, andI wanted to pick schools that cost significantly less than average for students hoping to attend from out of state. IÃ¢â¬â¢ve included the cost for room and board at each of these schools because tuition and fees are often less than the price of room and board.IÃ¢â¬â¢m hoping this will give you a better idea of the real cost of attending these colleges. IÃ¢â¬â¢ll also provide statistics onhow much aid is typically offered to students at each college so you can see how generous these schools are in helping out students who canÃ¢â¬â¢t afford to pay full tuition. Finally, IÃ¢â¬â¢ve included stats for admissions rates and enrollment to help you get a better idea of the size and competitiveness of these schools.I did not include schools with open enrollment,so these colleges all have some degree of competitiveness (even if their acceptance rates are in the 90s). The 25 Cheapest Out-of-State Colleges These schools are listed in order of net cost from lowest to highest(based on tuition and fees +room and board Ã¢Ëâaverage annual institutional aid). Though some schools might have higher tuition prices, they make up for it by offering generous financial aid to students. Note that some schools did not provide info on average financial aid packages for students; this does not necessarily mean these schools they don't offer any aid to students. All data below comes from the College Board, and all costs are for fall 2018. School Tuition Fees Room Board Avg. Aid Package Acceptance Rate Undergrad Enrollment 1.Minot State University $7,064 $6,610 $9,946 69% 2,956 2.Southwest Minnesota State University $8,632 $7,985 $9,766 62% 6,526 3.Southern Arkansas University $12,786 $6,240 $12,154 69% 3,475 4.Mayville State University $9,399 $7,840 $10,027 48% 1,097 5.Central State University $8,346 $10,232 $,352 48% 1,784 6.West Texas AM University $10,476 $7,196 $9,767 61% 7,394 7.Harris-Stowe State University $9,973 $9,250 $,146 40% 1,442 8.South Dakota School of Mines and Technology $14,021 $8,440 $14,379 - 2,421 9.Henderson State University $10,086 $7,504 $9,279 80% 2,832 10.Louisiana State University Alexandria $14,230 - $5,836 - 3,372 .Northern State University $,471 $8,029 $10,752 88% 3,162 12.Midwestern State University $10,969 $8,877 $10,955 81% 5,330 13.Bemidji State University $8,696 $8,408 $8,025 66% 4,833 14.Alcorn State University $7,144 $9,608 $7,581 40% 3,172 15.Southeastern Oklahoma State University $15,390 $6,970 $13,097 72% 3,070 16.Truman State University $14,581 $8,780 $13,306 67% 5,898 17.University of Minnesota Morris $15,342 $8,342 $12,851 64% 1,627 18.Dakota State University $12,249 $6,873 $7,789 84% 2,962 19.University of South Dakota $12,425 $8,216 $8,620 87% 7,648 20.University of Nebraska at Kearney $14,503 $9,878 $12,008 82% 4,843 21.Missouri Southern State University $13,934 $6,865 $8,367 95% 6,021 22.Oklahoma Panhandle State University $9,133 $4,695 - - 1,138 23.Southwestern Oklahoma State University $13,935 $5,830 $5,769 - 4,623 24. Rogers State University $15,210 $8,616 $9,422 83% 3,696 25. Arkansas Tech University $15,848 $7,870 $9,235 95% 10,781 Fort Hays State University campus- though I'm not sure why this picture makes it look like a miniature model ... Why Are These Colleges So Cheap for Out-of-State Students? Why are the tuition prices on this list so low? For a significant number of these schools, there is no difference between in-state and out-of-state tuition. With the increasing level of competitiveness in higher education, less well-known schools are using low prices to entice students to attend. The affordability of a college education has become a huge concern as tuition prices continue to rise at most schools. The best way for more obscure schools to increase their viability in the higher education market is to lower their price tags. This gets them on lists of "best value" schools (like this one!) and leads to a strong reputation for caring about the financial struggles of students. Some of these schools are simplydedicated to reducing the impact of financial concerns on those who choose to attend their college,whether they're in state or out of state. For example, Delta State University charges the same tuition rate for all students regardless of their residential status, stating that, "These rates are established to increase financial equity, reduce the impact of financial considerations on educational policy, and increase uniformity across the university." A Final Word: Remember, ItÃ¢â¬â¢s Not All About Cost After seeing the low price tags on all these schools, you might be tempted to forego your other priorities in favor of a loan-free future.However, there are many factors to consider besides cost in the college search process. Even if you know it will be difficult for you to pay for college, many schools offer generous financial aid packages to those with demonstrated need.Avoid sacrificing your preferences for location, academic programs, and campus life just so you can spend less money on college. Before you make a decision based on how expensive a school is,think about the following: How big the school isand whether you think youÃ¢â¬â¢ll prefer a large or small environment Where the school is located in the country and whether it lines up with how far away from home you want to be The school'sprogram strengths and whether they align with your own interests- what opportunities do you want to have available to you in college? The social scene- do you want to be at a party school or one that caters toward smaller gatherings? Are you interested in Greek life at all? Overall quality of academics based on its admissions rate and student feedback The environment beyond the campus- do you prefer a large city or a small town? Once youÃ¢â¬â¢ve made up your mind about these key factors, you can move on to comparing schools based on financial criteria.ItÃ¢â¬â¢s OK to compromise on some things, but be sure you know whatÃ¢â¬â¢s most important to you so you end up with the best possible college experience. If youÃ¢â¬â¢re not sure where to start and need more specific advice, readour step-by-step guide to the college search process.You can also look at some highly reviewed college search websites to learn more information about schools that interest you. What's Next? Still not sure what you're looking for in a college? Read our articles on whether you should go to a school close to home and whether you should attend a large or small college. Application fees are the first hurdle you'll have to overcome when paying for college. Take a look at this list of colleges that don't charge any application fees to see whether you might be able to save some money in the application process. Many of the schools on this list have fairly small student bodies. Read this article to learn what you should expect from a small college environment and to figure out whether it's really the best choice for you. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points?We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now:
Monday, February 17, 2020
The American War on Terror in Afghanistan - Essay Example Moreover, many others believe that America should reassess its strategy from a realistic point of view to extricate itself from the conflict in Afghanistan and Iraq to concentrate on the wider aspects of the war on terrorism. Ã Now the question is how a country can attack another country without convincing reasons? Moreover, why the rest of the world keeping silence even when two sovereign states attacked by a superpower? How can the idealism of spreading democracy with the help of war be justified? Is it necessary for America to take a more pragmatic approach in fighting against terrorism? This paper tries to find answers to above question with the help of analysis of the war on terror both in Iraq and Afghanistan in a realistic point of view. Ã AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s war on terror strategies lacks consistency and a proper shape. While it engages in an all-out attack in Iraq, it uses targeted attacks in specific areas in Afghanistan. The reasons cited for attacks in Iraq and Afghanistan are entirely different. In Iraq, America accused that the president Saddam itself is leading the terrorist networks whereas in Afghanistan they had no such worries. In Afghanistan, America is getting support from the administration in their efforts to eliminate the Taliban led terrorist groups. Ã Mearsheimer (2005) has argued that Hans Joachim Morgenthau, one of the most important political thinkers of the 20th century and one of the great realist thinkers of all time has opposed the Vietnam War and he would have opposed the current war on terror also on same grounds. Mearsheimer has also mentioned that the dispute about whether to go to war in Iraq was between two competing theories of international politics: realism and the neo-conservatism that underpins the Bush doctrine (Mearsheimer). Many people now suspect that President Bush has certainly hidden agendas in conducting the war on terror.